sterilization provides permanent contraception for women who do not want
more children. It is a safe and simple surgical procedure and can
usually be done with local anesthesia and light sedation.
A small incision is made by the doctor in the womans abdomen and
the two fallopian tubes are blocked off or cut. These tubes carry eggs
from the ovaries to the uterus. With the tubes blocked, the womans
egg cannot meet the mans sperm.
The effectiveness of this method depends partially on how the tubes are
blocked, but all pregnancy rates are low. Only 0.5 pregnancies per 100
women (1 in 200) have been recorded in the first year after the
procedure. Within 10 years, this figure increases to 1.8 pregnancies per
100 women (1 in 55).
Postpartum tubal litigation (immediately after the childbirth) is one
of the most effective female sterilization techniques. In the first year
after the procedure only, 0.05 pregnancies per 100 women (1in 2000) has
- » Very effective.
- » It is permanent. A single procedure leads to lifelong, safe and
very effective family planning.
- » Nothing to remember, no supplies needed and no repeated clinic
- » No interference with sex. Does not affect a womans ability
to have sex.
- » No known long-term side effects or health risks.
It is usually painful for several days after the operation. Certain
uncommon complications of the surgery can occur:
- » Infection or bleeding at the incision
- » Internal infection or bleeding
- » Injury to internal organs
- » Anesthetic risk: With local anesthesia alone or with sedation,
rare risks of allergic reaction or overdose. With general
anesthesia, occasional delayed recovery and side effects.
Complications are more severe than with local anesthesia. There is
also a risk of overdose.
Reversal surgery is difficult, expensive and not available in most
areas. Successful reversal too is not guaranteed. Women who may want to
become pregnant in the future should choose a different method.
The right time to undergo Female Sterilization
A woman can have female sterilization procedure anytime that:
- » She decides that she will never want children in future.
- » It is reasonably certain that she is not pregnant. These times
---Immediately after childbirth or within 7days, if she has made a
voluntary informed choice in advance;
--- Six weeks or more after childbirth; or
--- Immediately after abortion (within 48 hours), if she has not
decided voluntarily in advance; and
--- Any other, but NOT between 7 days and 6 weeks postpartum.
Important points to remember
- » Permanent family planning method. A woman must think carefully
and decide she will never want any more children, before she makes
- » It is very effective and involves a safe and simple surgery.